This file documents installation of Link on an internal HDD.
Moving the Link OS to an internal HDD need not be complex or difficult.
One option is to just "clone" the USB jump drive onto the HDD, and perhaps
add a few new partitions for swap space and a data directory. As a long
time Linux user, I have some preferences for my HDD partitioing scheme.
In particular, I don't like my root filesystem, "/", to be almost full
right from the start, as it is with the 4G partition.
Run the command:
du --max-depth=1 / |sort -gr
This will show that most of the space used on the root partition is being
used by the "/usr" directory. This means that you can "clone" the USB
drive onto the HDD, create a new partition for the "/usr" directory tree,
and move the original "/usr" to its own partition, thus freeing up most
of the space on the root partition. This can be done on a running
system without breaking anything. You may also want to add a swap
partition, and have a separate partition for "/home". Here are the
With the LINK turned off (duh!), install the HDD. I used a 320G
SATA drive that cost all of $45 at Newegg.com, and plugged it into
SATA socket 1. Now, turn on the LINK to start the boot. If you get
an error saying "Non-system disk", you have to massage the BIOS a little
to get started.
Changing BIOS boot parameters
Reboot, and when the ASUS splash screen appears, press and hold the
'Del' key. This puts you in the BIOS configuration utility. Press the
right arrow key until "Boot" is highlighted, and select "Hard Disk Drives"
(I have the nVidia version of the ASUS motherboard. If you have the
ATI version, M3A78-VM, the BIOS options may be slightly different, but
you should be able to figure it out.)
With the USB jump drive plugged in, and the new SATA drive installed,
it may have the SATA drive as the first choice for boot device. Change
it so that you boot from the USB drive, save changes and exit. The
system should reboot as normal.
Open a terminal screen for what follows:
If you haven't already created a password for "root", do it now.
It's a lot more convenient (and potentially dangerous!) than having to
type "sudo" in front of every command.
sudo passwd root
Enter your password, ("ntv" is the default)
Pick a password, like "ntv", and enter it when prompted
Change your starting directory, so it is not "/home/neurosuser/".
(You'll see why later), and become root:
Give the password, and you are now root until you press ^D (hold down
the Ctrl key and press D) when you are done to get back to being
This should verify that the Link is running from /dev/sdb2, and that
the HDD is /dev/sda with no partition table.
dd if=/dev/sdb of=/dev/sda bs=1M
This will take a bit of time to complete.
This should verify that the HDD now has a single partition, /dev/sda2, that
is about 4G in size, and the rest unallocated.
Use your favorite disk partitioning program to create whatever additional
partitions you like. I used plain 'ol "fdisk", and did as follows: (Sizes are
approximate; mount points are just a reminder)
/dev/sda2 4G / primary
/dev/sda3 2G swap primary
/dev/sda4 300G extended extended
/dev/sda5 4G /usr logical
/dev/sda6 10G /home logical
/dev/sda7 286G /pub logical
for each of the new partitions, you must create a filesystem. I used "ext3"
with default parameters. If you are using a different partitioning program,
it may have done this for you already. Otherwise:
for i in 5 6 7; do mkfs -t /dev/sda$i; done
swapoff -a; mkswap /dev/sda3; swapon -a
Mount the new partitions so you can write to them:
mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/sda5
mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/sda6
Now, we are going to copy the "/usr" directory tree to its new future home:.
rsync -a /usr/ /mnt/sda5
( NOTE! The trailig "/" after "/usr" is VERY important!)
rsync -a /home/ /mnt/sda6
Next, we will delete the old "/usr" tree, and mount the new one in its place:
rm -fr /usr
mount /dev/sda5 /usr
I have not been able to figure a way to delete the old "/home" directory tree,
as there are open files on it. If you are able to log in as "root" from a
command line interface when booting, you should be able to do so. On my system,
with the Grub2 boot manager, you hold down the "Shift" key as the system starts
to bring up the boot menu. However, when I select "rescue mode", the on-screen
menu gets screwed up, and I can't continue. (Fixing that will be my next
project.) In the meantime, mounting the new "/home" over the old one won't
hurt anything, it just takes up a little extra disk space. Fortunately, it is
Delete what you can: (Don't mind the error messages)
rm -fr /home
mount /dev/sda6 /home
Now, we need to tweak the file "/etc/fstab" to make our new partitions mount
automatically when they system boots. The following short script will create
some new entries at the end of "/etc/fstab".
for i in 3 5 6 7; do echo -e "# /dev/sda$i\nUUID=$(blkid -o value /dev/sda$i)" >> fstab
Now we need to finish those new entries. Open "fstab" with you favorite
text editor. There should be several new lines at the end of the file, somewhat
These lines need to be edited to look like this:
UUID=.... none swap sw 0 0
UUID=.... /usr ext3 relatime 0 2
UUID=.... /home ext3 relatime 0 2
UUID=.... /pub ext3 relatime 0 2
save the file and exit.
That's it! Shut down the system, remove the jump drive, and power
back on. It should boot normally. From a terminal screen:
You should get something close to:
/dev/sda2 on / type ext2 (rw,errors=remount-ro)
/dev/sda5 on /usr type ext3 (rw,relatime)
/dev/sda6 on /home type ext3 (rw,relatime)
/dev/sda7 on /pub type ext3 (rw,relatime)
You should see something close to:
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2 3.7G 712M 2.8G 20% /
udev 944M 252K 944M 1% /dev
none 944M 24K 944M 1% /dev/shm
tmpfs 944M 60K 944M 1% /tmp
tmpfs 944M 100K 944M 1% /var/run
none 944M 0 944M 0% /var/lock
none 944M 0 944M 0% /lib/init/rw
/dev/sda5 4.0G 2.1G 1.7G 56% /usr
/dev/sda6 9.9G 241M 9.2G 3% /home
tmpfs 944M 528K 943M 1% /home/neurosuser/.mozilla/firefox/gismclso.default/Cache
/dev/sda7 274G 4.7G 256G 2% /pub
This shows that both / and /usr have lots of free space, giving you much
more flexibility to add new software packages and upgrades.
The only other thing you may want to do is to make the "/pub" directory
available to everyone: As root:
chmod 777 /pub